Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to gain the following skills.|
Hydrogen production from electrochemical and solar-thermochemical methods:
Hydrogen production from biomass:
- Evaluate the properties of hydrogen and chemical reactions related to hydrogen production and storage.
- Evaluate the different hydrogen production methods
- Calculate the hydrogen production via electrochemical methods (electrolysis).
- Calculate the chemical kinetics behind two-step thermochemical hydrogen production process and assess its characteristics.
- Design a solar thermochemical reactor based on radiative heat transfer calculations and scaling analysis.
- Review the bottlenecks in the commercialisation of solar thermochemical hydrogen production
- Assess the possibilities of different biomass conversion routes in the context of hydrogen production.
- Estimate hydrogen and carbon production from biomass pyrolysis route.
- Estimate hydrogen and carbon production from biomass gasification route.
- Evaluate the conversion processes and routes using performance indicators like energy efficiency, fossil energy use, land, and water footprints.
CO2 capture from conventional hydrogen production:
- Assess the different methods of H2 storage, and recommend their suitability for application in different scenarios and their commercial prospects.
- Calculate the end-to-end efficiency of hydrogen usage cycle, i.e. from hydrogen production, its storage, to its utilization and evaluate it with typical ranges for other technologies such as wind and solar.
- Recommend decision between using a hydrogen powered electric cars and a battery powered electric cars in different situations related to sustainability.
- Conceive why certain aspects of industrial energy usage cannot be electrified, and how hydrogen can be utilized for decarbonisation in such scenarios.
- Critique on whether hydrogen is a hope or hype.
Derive the mass and energy balance equations and learn to apply it in different scenarios for the various thermochemical process considered in this course.
- Formulate the basic thermochemical phenomenon that enables CO2 capture.
- Identify the overall process of CO2 capture – its types, and investigate their suitability for application in different processes.
- Derive the governing equation for diffusion process and apply it to model and analyse the CO2 capture process.
- Calculate scaling analysis of process components.
- Evaluate CO2 capture from ambient air
Every month, a considerable portion of our spending is for electricity consumption, heating our homes, and transport. And in the future with improving standards of living around the world the energy consumption will further increase. Power generation, heating of buildings, industrial heating systems, and fuel for transport are also the major drivers of our economy and job prospects. These segments are actively looking for a sustainable energy carrier, and hydrogen emerges as a potential and feasible choice .|
Hydrogen, though the most abundant element present in the universe, is so reactive that it is majorly found as compounds of other elements in the Earth. So the course begins with an overview of different methods of hydrogen production that has been developed over the past three centuries. In this course the focus will be given on thermochemical methods.
The commonly used input material for H2 production, i.e. the hydrogen sources, and their suitability will be discussed. Thermolysis, which is direct production of hydrogen from water by application of heat, will be described along with its limitations. Two-step thermochemical process of hydrogen production are discussed and their potential is compared against multi-step methods.
Hydrogen can also be produced from biomass gasification, and this is discussed beginning with an overview of biomass conversion routes, followed by reactor design for hydrogen production. The conversion process is evaluated in terms of various performance indicators.
All hydrogen producing methods need energy as an input to split hydrogen compounds and produce hydrogen. This energy can be a combination of high quality (in thermodynamic sense) work, and low quality heat. The relative amounts of these energy forms needed, i.e. the interplay between Gibbs free energy change and enthalpy change and how temperature affects this distribution is discussed.
Common misconceptions about hydrogen safety would be addressed.
The produced hydrogen can to be stored for application elsewhere and later on. An understanding of the basic phenomena involved in storing and retrieving hydrogen will be dealt with.
Though there are many green ways to produce hydrogen, the present predominant method used in hydrogen production is steam methane reforming. This and other industrial process emit CO2 that is equivalent of UK and Indonesia combined . which is one of the major concern to address climate change. So technologies for post-combustion and Direct Air Capture of CO2 will be discussed.
The entire hydrogen chain provides abundance of opportunities for future engineers to express themselves, tackle challenging scenarios, and thereby contribute their share to a sustainable, and peaceful world. We believe that this course provides the environment for students to learn, apply, discuss, and be confident in participating in the future of hydrogen technology. “Hydrogen is today enjoying unprecedented momentum. The world should not miss this unique chance to make hydrogen an important part of our clean and secure energy future.” .
1. IEA (2019), The Future of Hydrogen, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/the-future-of-hydrogen
Assumed previous knowledge
|A bachelors level knowledge of thermodynamics (especially mass and energy balance), heat and mass transfer, and calculus is expected.|
|Master Sustainable Energy Technology|
|Master Mechanical Engineering|
|Master Industrial Design Engineering|
|Master Chemical Engineering||Required materials-|Recommended materials
|E-Book: Zhang, Jin Zhong, Jinghong Li, Yat Li, and Yiping Zhao. Hydrogen generation, storage and utilization. John Wiley & Sons, 2014. (Available online in UT library) ISBN: 9781118140635|
|E-Book: Calise, Francesco, Massimo Dentice D’Accadia, Massimo Santarelli, Andrea Lanzini, and Domenico Ferrero, eds. Solar hydrogen production: processes, systems and technologies. Academic Press, 2019. (Available online in UT library) ISBN: 9780128148549|
|E-Book:Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction (2nd edition) By Prabir Basu (Available online in UT library) ISBN: 9780123965431|
|E-Book: Lienhard, IV, J. H. and Lienhard, V, J. H. A Heat Transfer Textbook, 5th Edition, Phlogiston Press, 2020. (Available for download at https://ahtt.mit.edu/). ISBN: N/A|
|E-Book: Modest, Michael F., and Sandip Mazumder. Radiative heat transfer. Academic press, 2021. (Available online in UT library) ISBN: 978-0-323-98406-5|
|E-Book: Broom, Darren P. Hydrogen storage materials: the characterisation of their storage properties. Vol. 1. London: Springer, 2011. (Available online in UT library) ISBN: 9780857292216|
|E-Book: Wilcox, Jennifer. Carbon capture. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012. (Available online in UT library) ISBN: 9781461422150|
|E-Book: Rackley, Stephen A. Carbon capture and storage. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007. (Available online in UT library) ISBN: 9780080951386|
|Reading material, and lecture slides. Made available in Canvas.|Instructional modes
|Written examination / assignments|