The student can:
- Indicate the differences between an ideal gas and a real gas (non-ideal); indicate the physical background of terms in the Van der Waals equation.
- Sketch phase diagrams of a substance in a P-V and P-T diagram (solid/liquid, vapour/gas), including the triple point. Indicate the significance of the critical quantities in this context.
- Formulate the first law, indicate the meaning of the various terms, and apply them. Calculate labour and heat in processes with ideal gases: isothermal, isobaric, isochoric and adiabatic. Formulate the internal energy in terms of thermal energy. Explain the concept of degrees of freedom and apply it to 1-atomic and 2-atomic gases and solid substances (Einstein model).
- Explain the concepts of specific heat and heat capacity, distinguishing between cP and cV. Apply this to an ideal gas and a solid substance.
- Explain what the concept of enthalpy entails and how it differs from internal energy. Apply Hess’s law: determine enthalpy of reaction based on enthalpies of formation. Determine enthalpy change for processes involving ideal gases.
- Second law: explain the concepts of microstate, macrostate, and multiplicity and determine these for simple systems with a relatively limited number of microstates. Explain the concept of entropy based on multiplicity and formulate the second law this way. Determine entropy changes in reactions and processes with ideal gases in case of heating up or cooling down of a certain heat capacity.
- Sketch cycles between two thermal reservoirs and explain them: thermal engine, refrigerator, heat pump. In the given cycle, possibly with an ideal gas, determine energy flows and, based on this, the efficiency of the cycle.
- Make a connection to Carnot efficiency.
- Indicate how thermodynamic identities dU, dH, dG and dF are formed. Apply Maxwell relations.
- Determine changes in Gibbs free energy and Helmholtz free energy in reactions, and, based on this, determine the required or available labour.
For Process Engineering it is essential to understand the concepts of heat and temperature, and their relation to energy, work, and the properties of matter. This is connected to Thermodynamics, and in particular to its first law (conservation of energy) and second law (‘law of maximum entropy production’). In everyday life, we continuously encounter systems consisting of an extremely large number of particles; a glass of water contains ~1025 water molecules. In describing the behaviour of such a many-particle system, it is impossible to separately study each individual part (microscopic). The alternative macroscopic approach studies the characteristics of the system as a whole, such as thermal conductivity and thermal capacity. These characteristics and behaviours often do not depend on the microscopic details of such a system at all. A gas, for example, will always expand to fill a larger volume, while the reverse will not spontaneously occur.