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Cursus: 202001043
Cyber-Physical Systems Core
Cursus informatieRooster
Studiepunten (ECTS)15
Contactpersoondr. S. Bayhan
VorigeVolgende 5
dr. S. Bayhan
Contactpersoon van de cursus
dr. S. Bayhan
dr. S. Bayhan
Docent M.J.G. Bekooij
Examinator M.J.G. Bekooij
OpmerkingB-TCS students register via Osiris; others contact Minor students: register for the minor!
AanmeldingsprocedureZelf aanmelden via OSIRIS Student
Inschrijven via OSIRISJa
The central learning goals of this module are as follows. After this module, the student is able to
1. describe and explain the concepts, challenges, methods and applications related to Cyber-Physical Systems
2. apply design methods relevant to Cyber-Physical Systems to simple (sub-)systems
3. design, analyze, and verify a Cyber-Physical System
4. describe, explain, and apply the contents of each of the mini-tracks relevant for analyzing, evaluating and designing Cyber-Physical Systems:
  • formal specification and hybrid systems
  • cooperative autonomous driving
  • physical system modelling and controller design (for TCS) / embedded control systems implementation (EE)
  • wireless sensor and actuator systems
  • real-time operating systems  
The learning goals for the various mini-tracks are as follows.
(1) Formal specification and hybrid systems:
After this module the student is able to:
1.    understand the fundamentals of Timed Automata (TA)
2.    understand the use of model checking in the tool UPPAAL
3.    use TA and UPPAAL in the analysis and design of real-time systems
4.    understand the fundamentals of Statistical Model Checking (SMC)
5.    use UPPAAL SMC for analyzing simple hybrid systems
Study material (all available online):
•    G. Behrmann, A. David, K.G. Larsen, “A tutorial on UPPAAL”. LNCS 3185, pp. 200-236 (2004).
•    A. David et al., “UPPAAL SMC  tutorial”. International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 1-2015.
•    Slides on Formal Specification and Hybrid Systems.

(2) Cooperative Autonomous Driving
After this module the student is able to:
1.       explain the CPS application Cooperative Autonomous Driving
2.       explain communication aspects of Cooperative Autonomous Driving
3.       explain computing aspects of Cooperative Autonomous Driving
4.       explain control aspects of Cooperative Autonomous Driving
5.       design and implement a distributed cooperative driving function in the in a simulation environment.
Study material (all available online):
- Scientific papers on the above topics
- Handouts for the labs.
Assessment: team-based learning tests + lab (demo + short paper)
Activities: Lectures, tutorials, team-based learning, labs.

(3A) Physical-Systems Modeling and Controller Design (for TCS and other non-EE engineering programs).
After successful completion the student knows essentials of:
1.    modeling of the dynamic behavior of physical systems, using a Domain-Specific Modeling Formalism;    
2.    the design of loop controllers for these physical systems, to adapt / influence the dynamic behavior of those;
3.    and can apply the above to basic CPSes, using modern, model-based tools.
Study material:
-    Job van Amerongen. Dynamical Systems for Create, available as free e-book ( or as (paid) printed copy.
-    Pencasts

Assessment: 2 graded assignments (group), 1 test (individual).
Activities: Self-study lectures, tutorials, labs using software tools running on the student’s own laptop.

(3B) Embedded Control Systems Implementation (for EE).
After successful completion the student knows essentials of:
1.    the design of loop controllers for the physical systems at hand, and understand implementation consequences;
2.    software frameworks for hard real-time control of physical systems (such as motors and robots);
3.    the implementation of loop controllers on processors running real-time operating systems;
4.    and can apply the above to basic CPSes, using modern, model-based tools.
Study material:
- Book: Peter Marwedel, Embedded Systems Design, (only recommended), primarily Chapter 4.
- Handouts on test case, software tools etc.
Assessment: reports on exercises: models and code, design rationale, and answer to (theory) questions.
Activities: Lectures and tutorials, using software tools and embedded equipment connected to the student’s own laptop.

(4) Wireless sensor and actuator systems
After this module the student is able to:
1. Describe and explain main design principles behind WSN systems, protocols and algorithms.
2. Describe and explain mechanisms to be used to achieve distributed and self-organizing capabilities at various layers of an WSN architecture.
3. Describe in detail how some well-established WSN systems, protocols and algorithms function, and describe their strengths and weaknesses.
4. Use critical thinking skills to develop alternative strategies for solving WSN problems.
Study material: reader/download with (links to) research papers.
Assessment: practical project (demo)

(5) Real-time operating systems.
After successful completion the student can:
1.          explain the basic operation of real-time linux-based operating systems for embedded systems
2.          use real-time linux-based operating systems for embedded systems for designing a small Cyber-Physical System
3.          explain dataflow models for temporal analysis of concurrent systems
Study material:  to be provided online.
Assessment: written exam and project (demo + short report).

(6) Project part.
In the project part of this module, students will work in teams on a small project. Conditions:
- Each team consists of 4 students and includes both EE and TCS students, preferably 50/50%.
- Each team develops its own project idea(s), presents these, and selects one of them on the basis of (a) feedback session(s).
- In each project (proposal), aspects of at least 4 of the 5 tracks should be visible/used.
- Details about the planning of the project, the set-up, etc., will be made available during the module, via Canvas. 
Assessment: project demo and report
A cyber-physical system is a system of collaborating computational elements controlling physical entities. A precursor-generation of cyber-physical systems can be found in diverse areas, such as aerospace, automotive, chemical processes, civil infrastructure, energy, healthcare, manufacturing, transportation, entertainment, and consumer appliances. In embedded systems the emphasis tends to be more on the computational elements, and less on an intense link between the computational and physical elements; also, the networking aspects are stressed more in CPS than in “traditional” embedded systems (although the difference between CPS and ES is also partly a matter of taste and terminology).
CPS can be found in electric power grids, transportation systems, integrated car-to-car communication systems, robotics systems, or integrated satellite computing and communicating equipment. CPS must be highly dependable, (energy-) efficient and meet real-time constraints and require customised user interfaces.

This module will provide an introduction to cyber-physical systems design, the required specification models and language, and will address a number of application areas for CPS. Specialised hardware devices, the essentials of real-time operating systems, and essentials of control systems are also presented.

The quarter will consist of two phases. Phase 1 will be a regular lecturing phase, whereas Phase 2 is the project phase, as follows.
In Phase 1 (weeks 1—6 in Q3.2), students will follow courses, tutorials and small labs in the following topics (called “mini-tracks”):
1) formal specification and hybrid systems;
2) cooperative autonomous driving;
3A) physical-systems modeling and controller design (for CS), or
3B) embedded control system implementation (for EE);
4) wireless sensor and actuator systems;
5) real-time operating systems;

In week 7 there will be written/oral exams/assignments for the five mini-tracks. Furthermore, during weeks 2—6, we plan a number of (obligatory) “guest lectures” with speakers from the field.
In Phase 2 (last 3 weeks of the quarter), we plan project work (in small multidisciplinary teams) in which the material from the Phase 1 will be put to practice in small multidisciplinary projects; Result of such a project will be project artefacts (code, models, etc.), a short research paper (max 6 pages, IEEE double column format), and a final presentation with demo. Note that the above “put to practice” can mean that students indeed do practical experiments or extended lab work, but might also be of a more theoretical nature. Students will work in teams (up to 5 persons) and come up with their own project idea. Projects can, for instance, be taken from a variety of application fields, such as, car-to-car communications, precision machine control, smart grids, healthcare robotics, data centres, or (satellite) communication systems.
Already in Phase 1 a few meetings will be devoted to the project, mainly for brainstorming definition of the project idea. In Phase 2 the idea will turned in a working prototype, and related analysis and evaluation. In the last week of the quarter (week 10) besides the final project presentation and demo, there will “mini-track exam repair possibilities”.
This minor module is accessible for all engineering programs

There will be some changes in the module content for the next academic year 2022-2023.

- Programming (Java / C) (and skills to also program in a different language, Java, C(++), Python)
(taught in e.g., TCS module 2, EE module 2 and 7b)
- High school physics
- 1st and 2nd order differential equations (taught in e.g., calculus 1B)
Participating study
Participating study
Bachelor Electrical Engineering
Module 8C
Verplicht materiaal
Course material
Slides of lectures (all topics)
Course material
Free online material (made available via Canvas)
Aanbevolen materiaal



Overig onderwijs


Project onbegeleid

Formal Specification and Hybrid Systems

Homework exercises and short report on practical exercise

Cooperative Autonomous Driving

Team-based learning tests and lab (demo + short paper)

Wireless Sensor and Actuator Systems

Practical project and its demonstration, complemented by theoretical questions orally asked during the demonstration.

Real-time Operating Systems

Physical-systems Modeling and Control

For TCS and other non-EE engineering students; 2 mandatory graded assignments (group), 1 mandatory test (individual)

Embedded Control System Implementation

For EE students; reports on exercises: models and code, design rationale, and answers to (theory) questions


Project artefacts, intermediate presentations, final presentation, 6-page research paper

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