The learning objective is to gain insight and understanding regarding ion transport in liquids. For this the following subgoals are defined:
- Students will be able to use the electrochemical potential to understand the relevant driving forces for ion-transport in fluids
- Based on the Nernst-Planck equations, students will be able to assess the relative contributions of electromigration, diffusion and advection
- The assumption of electroneutrality in the bulk and at interfaces will be understood in terms of validity and students will be able to derive and use relevant interfacial boundary conditions to describe charged interfaces, arising from the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations
- Students will be able to understand the role of fluid transport in forced convection or induced motion (electro-osmosis and related phenomena) and make predictions or hypotheses based on applying the PNP equations along with the Navier-Stokes equations (momentum balance)
- Students will be exposed to and be able to make connections of theoretical concepts to experimenta and industrial applications involving systems where ion-transport phenomena plays an important role.
Starting from the electrochemical potential, the Nernst-Planck equation will be derived and then used to understand the relative contribution of electromigration and diffusion. The validity of assuming electroneutrality in a fluid phase is discussed and investigated by introduction of the Poisson equation. In double layers and interfaces, the potential and ion distributions can be studied further. Next, the effect of fluid transport on ion transport and vice-versa will be introduced by combining the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations with the Navier-Stokes equations. From this, electrokinetic mechanisms such as electro-osmosis can be derived. Finally, the use of these frameworks in relevant industrial procesess where ion transport plays a crucial role is explored.