Kies de Nederlandse taal
Course module: 201700273
Cyber-Physical Systems
Course info
Course module201700273
Credits (ECTS)15
Course typeModule
Language of instructionDutch
Contact B.R.H.M. Haverkort
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Lecturer M.J.G. Bekooij
Lecturer J.F. Broenink
Contactperson for the course B.R.H.M. Haverkort
Lecturer B.R.H.M. Haverkort
prof.dr. P.J.M. Havinga
Academic year2017
Starting block
Application procedureYou apply via OSIRIS Student
Registration using OSIRISYes
Number of insufficient tests1
Learning goals
The learning goals for the various mini-tracks are as follows.
(1) Formal specification and hybrid systems:
After this module the student is able to:
1.    understand the fundamentals of Timed Automata (TA)
2.    understand the use of model checking in the tool UPPAAL
3.    use TA and UPPAAL in the analysis and design of real-time systems
4.    understand the fundamentals of Statistical Model Checking (SMC)
5.    use UPPAAL SMC for analyzing simple hybrid systems
Study material (all available online):
•    G. Behrmann, A. David, K.G. Larsen, “A tutorial on UPPAAL”. LNCS 3185, pp. 200-236 (2004).
•    A. David et al., “UPPAAL SMC  tutorial”. International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 1-2015.
•    Slides on Formal Specification and Hybrid Systems.

 (2) Sensor and actuator systems
After this module the student is able to:
1. Describe and explain main design principles behind WSN systems, protocols and algorithms.
2. Describe and explain mechanisms to be used to achieve distributed and self-organizing capabilities at various layers of an WSN architecture.
3. Describe in detail how some well-established WSN systems, protocols and algorithms function, and describe their strengths and weaknesses.
4. Use critical thinking skills to develop alternative strategies for solving WSN problems.
Study material: reader/download with (links to) research papers.

(3A) Physical-Systems Modeling and Controller Design (for CS).
After successful completion the student knows essentials of:
1.    modeling of the dynamic behavior of physical systems, using a Domain-Specific Modeling Formalism;    
2.    the design of loop controllers for these physical systems, to adapt / influence the dynamic behavior of those;
3.    testing and implementing these loop controllers on processors running hard real-time operating systems;
4.    and can apply the above to basic CPSes, using modern, model-based tools.
Study material:
-    Job van Amerongen. Dynamical Systems for Create, available as free e-book ( or as (paid) printed copy.
-    Peter Marwedel, Embedded Systems Design. Springer-Verlag, (recommended).
-    Handouts on test case, software tools, etc.
Assessment: reports on exercises: models and code, design rationale, and answer to (theory) questions.
Activities: Lectures and tutorials, using software tools running on the student’s own laptop.

(3B) Embedded Control Systems Implementation (for EE).
After successful completion the student knows essentials of:
1.    the design of loop controllers for the physical systems at hand, and understand implementation consequences;
2.    software frameworks for hard real-time control of physical systems (such as motors and robots);
3.    the implementation of loop controllers on processors running real-time operating systems;
4.    and can apply the above to basic CPSes, using modern, model-based tools.
Study material:
- Book: Peter Marwedel , Embedded Systems Design, (only recommended), primarily Chapter 4.
- Handouts on test case, software tools etc.
Assessment: reports on exercises: models and code, design rationale, and answer to (theory) questions.
Activities: Lectures and tutorials, using software tools and embedded equipment connected to the student’s own laptop.

(4) Dependable system and network design and evaluation:
After this module the student is able to:
1. Explain the concepts of dependability and the basic principles of dependable system design;
2. Explain and apply simple redundancy mechanisms to improve system dependability;
3. Explain and apply basic techniques to evaluate system dependability, such as reliability block diagrams, fault-trees and Markov chains;
4. Explain and apply the basic principles of highly-dependable storage systems;
5. Discuss key developments (from an historical perspective) in fault-tolerant system design;
6. Use state-of-the-art tools for evaluation system dependability (for example,  Möbius or PRISM).
Study material:
- Scientific paper and chapters on the above topics;
- Slides.
Activities: Lectures and tutorials, using software running on the student’s own laptop.
Assessment: take home exam.

(5) Real-time operating systems.
After successful completion the student can:
1. To be provided
Study material:  to be provided online.
Assessment: written exam and report on exercise.

(6) Project part.
In the project part of this module, students will work in teams on a small project. Conditions:
- Each team consists of 4 students and includes both EE and TI students, preferably 50/50%.
- Each team develops its own project idea(s), presents these, and selects one of them on the basis of (a) feedback session(s).
- In each project (proposal), aspects of at least 4 of the 5 tracks should be visible/used.
- Details about the planning of the project, the set-up, etc., will be made available during the module, via blackboard.

All study material will be made available electronically (free of charge).
A cyber-physical system is a system of collaborating computational elements controlling physical entities. A precursor-generation of cyber-physical systems can be found in diverse areas, such as aerospace, automotive, chemical processes, civil infrastructure, energy, healthcare, manufacturing, transportation, entertainment, and consumer appliances. In embedded systems the emphasis tends to be more on the computational elements, and less on an intense link between the computational and physical elements; also, the networking aspects are stressed more in CPS than in “traditional” embedded systems (although the difference between CPS and ES is also partly a matter of taste and terminology).
CPS can be found in electric power grids, transportation systems, integrated car-to-car communication systems, robotics systems, or integrated satellite computing and communicating equipment. CPS must be highly dependable, (energy-) efficient and meet real-time constraints and require customised user interfaces.

This module will provide an introduction cyber-physical systems design, the required specification models and language, and will address a number of application-areas for CPS. Specialised hardware devices, the essentials of real-time operating systems, and essentials of control systems are also presented.

The quarter will consist of two phases. Phase 1 will be a regular lecturing phase, whereas Phase 2 is the project phase, as follows.
In Phase 1 (weeks 1—6 in Q3.2), students will follow courses, tutorials and small labs in the following topics (called “mini-tracks”):
1) formal specification and hybrid systems;
2) sensor and actuator systems;
3A) physical-systems modeling and controller design (for CS), or
3B) embedded control system implementation (for EE);
4) dependable systems and network;
5) real-time operating systems;
6) Joint projects (all students; groups of 4, with mix of EE, TI and possibly other students).

In week 7 there will be written/oral exams/assignments for all the five mini-tracks. During weeks 2—6, we plan a number of (obligatory) “guest lectures” with speakers from the field.
In Phase 2 (last 3 weeks of the quarter), we plan project work (in small teams) in which the material from the Phase 1 will be put to practice in small projects; in Phase 1 a few meetings will be devoted to the project already as well. Result of such a project will be project artefacts (code, models, etc.), a short research paper (max 6 pages, IEEE double column format), one final and two intermediate presentations. Note that the above “put to practice” can mean that students indeed do practical experiments or extended lab work, but might also be of a more theoretical nature. Students will work in teams (up to 5 persons) and come up with their own project idea. Projects can, for instance, be taken from a variety of application fields, such as, car-to-car communications, precision machine control, smart grids, healthcare robotics, data centres, or (satellite) communication systems.
In the last week of the term (week 10) there will be final presentations and “exam repair facilities”.
Assumed previous knowledge
Required materials
Course material
Slides of lectures (all topics)
Course material
Free online material (made available via blackboard)
Recommended materials
Instructional modes

Final thesis




Project unsupervised

Formal specification and hybrid systems

Homework exercises and short report on practical exercise

Dependable systems and networks

Homework exercises (including report on practical exercise) and presentation on a classical dependable system

Sensor and actuator systems

Real-time operating systems

Physical-systems modeling and control

For CS students

Embedded control system implementation

For EE students


Project artefacts, intermediate presentations, final presentation, 6-page research paper, youtube movie

Kies de Nederlandse taal